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Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence)
Impotence is discussed in detail elsewhere, Click
here to go to that section.
Cancer of the Testes
Testicular Self Examination (TSE)
Testicular cancer is a relatively rare form of cancer and accounts
for only 1 percent of cancers
in men; however it is the most common cancer in men between the
ages of 15 and 40. Nevertheless, testicular cancer is one of the
most treatable forms of cancer, with cure rates approaching 100%
if detected early.
The testes or testicles are part of the male reproductive system
and produce sperm cells, as
well as the male sex hormone testosterone. The testes are suspended
in a membranous sac called the scrotum that hangs below the groin
and the penis. Behind each gland is the
epididymis, a tube that transports the sperm to the urethra for
ejaculation through the penis.
The most common sign of testicular cancer is a painless swelling
or lump in one testis.
About a third of the time, a man may experience a dull ache or a
feeling of heaviness in
the lower stomach, scrotum or groin area.
Testicular cancers are sometimes referred to as Germ Cell Tumours
(GCT’s). There are
three main types of testicular cancer: Seminoma, Non-Seminoma and
a third type which is
a mixture of the two. Seminomas tend to be slower-growing and occur
in the fourth decade
of life, while non-seminomas occur more often when men are in their
are generally more aggressive than seminomas. Between 65 and 85%
of seminomas are
limited to the testes when first diagnosed, while approximately
75% of non-seminomas have already spread to the lymph nodes when
Self Examination (TSE)
All men should be familiar with the size and feeling of their testicles,
so they can detect
any type of change. Men are advised to perform testicular self-examinations.
A TSE is
best done after a warm bath or shower when the skin of the scrotum
is relaxed. After
observing for any changes in appearance, each testis is carefully
examined by rolling it
between the fingers and thumbs of both hands to check for any lumps.
Since the symptoms commonly associated with testicular cancer can
also be caused by infections or illnesses
other than cancer, it critical to see an urologist for an accurate
As with other urological malignancies there may be a number of treatment
to individual patients. These include Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation
Therapy and Bone
Marrow Transplant. The best course of treatment for each individual
case depends on a
number of factors including the type of testicular cancer you have,
its stage and grade and
the general health of the patient. A series of tests may need to
be conducted in order to
plan the best treatment available. This work up may include a physical
examination; a pathological examination or biopsy of the tumour;
imaging studies such as CT, and blood
tests to determine proteins that are specific markers of testicular
Staging is an assessment of the extent of disease. Staging allows
the doctor to gauge the
size and location of any tumours by using information gathered from
imaging studies such
as CT scans etc., as well as information from pathological and physical
Once a stage has been defined, the physician can determine how a
patient may do over
time and determine what therapy is indicated.
Basically, in Stage 1 the tumour is confined to the testes. In Stage
2 the tumour may
have spread to lymph nodes but is restricted to the abdomen. Finally,
in Stage 3 the
tumour has spread to visceral sites or beyond the lymph nodes in
the abdomen to other
parts of the body.
A blood sample is taken and examined to check for ‘Tumour Markers’
that some cancers
of the testis produce. These markers mirror the activity of the
tumour and indicate to the
doctor the behaviour of the malignancy.
A CT scan may be taken to check the lymph nodes in the abdomen and
the other organs in
your body to ascertain whether the cancer may have spread or not.
TREATMENTS & SURGERY
A biopsy of the suspect tissue can provide an absolute diagnosis
of testicular cancer. If a suspicious mass is found and other conditions
are ruled out surgery is the most common
form of treatment for most testicular cancers. There are two main
types of surgery
depending on the type of cancer that is found.
Orchidectomy involves the surgical removal of the testicle. This
procedure is performed
in hospital under general anaesthetic. An incision is made into
the groin, where the blood
vessels leading to the testicle is first cut off in a bid to prevent
cancer cells ‘spilling’ into the
rest of the body.
Most side effects from this surgery tend to be temporary. Typically
pain and discomfort
around the operation site are the most common side effects, but
this pain can be managed
with painkillers, and should subside over time.
If you have had one testicle removed prosthetic testicle can be
made and inserted into the scrotum at a later date; sexuality and
fertility should not be affected.
Removing both testicles leads to infertility. Hormone therapy may
be needed to replace the
lack of testosterone production; taking hormones will mean that
sexual activity can continue
and that erections and ejaculation will still be possible – although
no sperm will be produced.
Talk to your doctor about possible side effects and the methods
available to alleviate them.
Sometimes an operation to remove the lymph nodes in the abdomen
is performed as well
as Orchidectomy. This is usually done if the cancer is thought to
have spread into the other
parts of the body.
Lymphadenectomy can have both temporary and longer term side effects,
including erectile dysfunction (impotence), an inability to ejaculate
and infertility. Again it is worthwhile talking
with the specialist regarding what side effects may be experienced
and the possible duration
Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)
Bone Marrow is tissue found in the centre of bones and is responsible
for producing various components of blood, including:
Red Blood Cells – which carry oxygen
around the body
White Blood Cells – which fight infection
in the body
Platelets – which helps blood to
clot and prevent bleeding
Bone marrow transplants are performed when the existing bone marrow
is destroyed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. With autologous BMT,
the patients donate Bone Marrow to themselves. Bone marrow is harvested
when the carcinoma is in remission, given high dose chemotherapy
to destroy any undetected cancer cells, then re-infused back to
when the marrow has stimulated enough blood components, usually
after 2 to 3 weeks.
Because the white cell count is low, the body’s natural defence
against infection is poor and therefore there is a risk of bacterial
and viral infections.
Bleeding may also occur due to the low level of platelets, common
occurrences are in the
mouth and nose. Platelet transfusions may be given to remedy this.
Potential side effects of any treatments should be discussed with
the doctor along with possible remedies for these associated conditions.