is female urology?
is a recurrent urinary tract infection?
is voiding dysfunction?
is urethral syndrome?
is interstitial cystitis?
is female Urology?
The subspecialty of female urology is concerned with the diagnosis
and treatment of those urinary tract disorders most prevalent in
females. These include recurrent urinary tract
infection, voiding dysfunction, incontinence, urethral syndrome
and interstitial cystitis. Expert evaluation of these conditions
includes a complete history and physical exam. X-ray studies
may be required to fully evaluate the urinary tracts.
Additional bladder studies such as cystoscopy and urodynamics may
The Department of Urology at Stony Brook offers a comprehensive
evaluation and treatment plan for these female urologic disorders.
Who is a recurrent urinary
A recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) may be generally defined
as three or more infections within one year. This is usually related
to a primary urologic disorder such as stones, tumor, reflux (urine
flows backwards toward the kidney) or ineffective bladder emptying.
Treatment is aimed at identifying the cause and/or proper antibiotic
therapy to break the cycle of recurrent infection.
What is voiding dysfunction?
Voiding dysfunction can take many forms. The main symptoms are urinary
frequency, painful urination and/or incomplete bladder emptying.
Treatment is aimed at decreasing or eliminating symptoms. Treatment
may involve medications or pelvic floor relaxation exercises.
What is incontinence?
Incontinence is any involuntary loss of urine. It is further defined
by type as either stress, urge, mixed, overflow, functional or reflex
(neurologic) incontinence. Treatment is dependent on the type of
incontinence. Current therapies include dietary changes, scheduled
voiding, bladder retraining, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback,
electrical stimulation therapy, medication, collagen implants and
What is urethral syndrome?
Urethral syndrome is a condition involving pain at the urethra that
can occur during urination
or without regard to urination. Treatment may consist of oral medication
or local estrogen replacement therapy. Urethral syndrome may exist
as a component of interstitial cystitis.
What is interstitial cystitis?
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a urologic syndrome characterized
by excessive urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia (nighttime urination)
and pain in the lower abdomen and/or perineum.
It can occur at any age, however, the median age at diagnosis is
between 42 and 46 years.
The cause of IC is unclear. It is believed to be related to irregularities
in the bladder lining
and/or an allergic/immune response. IC can severely affect an individualís
quality of life. Promising developments in the treatment of IC include
the medication, Elmiron, which works
to restore the normal function of the bladder lining. Other drugs
with calming effects on the bladder may also be helpful. Bladder
instillations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have
achieved variable success. Hydrodistention of the bladder under
anesthesia is a common therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. In
the most severe cases, surgery including
denervation, urinary diversion and augmentation cytoplasty may be