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Female Urology

 What is female urology?

 What is a recurrent urinary tract infection?

 What is voiding dysfunction?

 What is incontinence?

 What is urethral syndrome?

 What is interstitial cystitis?

What is female Urology?
The subspecialty of female urology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of those urinary tract disorders most prevalent in females. These include recurrent urinary tract
infection, voiding dysfunction, incontinence, urethral syndrome and interstitial cystitis. Expert evaluation of these conditions includes a complete history and physical exam. X-ray studies
may be required to fully evaluate the urinary tracts.
Additional bladder studies such as cystoscopy and urodynamics may be necessary.
The Department of Urology at Stony Brook offers a comprehensive evaluation and treatment plan for these female urologic disorders.

Who is a recurrent urinary tract infection?
A recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) may be generally defined as three or more infections within one year. This is usually related to a primary urologic disorder such as stones, tumor, reflux (urine flows backwards toward the kidney) or ineffective bladder emptying. Treatment is aimed at identifying the cause and/or proper antibiotic therapy to break the cycle of recurrent infection.

What is voiding dysfunction?
Voiding dysfunction can take many forms. The main symptoms are urinary frequency, painful urination and/or incomplete bladder emptying. Treatment is aimed at decreasing or eliminating symptoms. Treatment may involve medications or pelvic floor relaxation exercises.

What is incontinence?
Incontinence is any involuntary loss of urine. It is further defined by type as either stress, urge, mixed, overflow, functional or reflex (neurologic) incontinence. Treatment is dependent on the type of incontinence. Current therapies include dietary changes, scheduled voiding, bladder retraining, pelvic muscle exercises, biofeedback, electrical stimulation therapy, medication, collagen implants and surgery.

What is urethral syndrome?
Urethral syndrome is a condition involving pain at the urethra that can occur during urination
or without regard to urination. Treatment may consist of oral medication or local estrogen replacement therapy. Urethral syndrome may exist as a component of interstitial cystitis.

What is interstitial cystitis?
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a urologic syndrome characterized by excessive urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia (nighttime urination) and pain in the lower abdomen and/or perineum.
It can occur at any age, however, the median age at diagnosis is between 42 and 46 years.
The cause of IC is unclear. It is believed to be related to irregularities in the bladder lining
and/or an allergic/immune response. IC can severely affect an individualís quality of life. Promising developments in the treatment of IC include the medication, Elmiron, which works
to restore the normal function of the bladder lining. Other drugs with calming effects on the bladder may also be helpful. Bladder instillations with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have
achieved variable success. Hydrodistention of the bladder under anesthesia is a common therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. In the most severe cases, surgery including
denervation, urinary diversion and augmentation cytoplasty may be performed.

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